## Topic outline

• #### ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE

This comprehensive course contains 28 sections with 197 self-grading lessons, including final assessments. The first section is available to try for free.

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#### UNIT 1: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

Unit 1 provides students with a basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, including its language, the levels of organization, and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. These lessons provide a foundation for the further study of the body. They also focus particularly on how the body’s regions, important chemicals, and cells maintain homeostasis.

• #### An Introduction to the Human Body - Final Assessment

This is the final assessment for An Introduction to the Human Body. (Available when you subscribe.)

• This topic

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• #### The Chemical Level of Organization

2.1. Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
2.2. Chemical Bonds
2.3. Chemical Reactions
2.4. Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
2.5. Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
Final Assessment

• #### The Cellular Level of Organization

3.1. The Cell Membrane
3.2. The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
3.3. The Nucleus and DNA Replication
3.4. Protein Synthesis
3.5. Cell Growth and Division
3.6. Cellular Differentiation
Final Assessment

• #### The Tissue Level of Organization

4.1. Types of Tissues
4.2. Epithelial Tissue
4.3. Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
4.4. Muscle Tissue and Motion
4.5. Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
4.6. Tissue Injury and Aging
Final Assessment

#### UNIT 2: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

In Unit 2, students explore the skin, the largest organ of the body, and examine the body’s skeletal and muscular systems, following a traditional sequence of topics. This unit is the first to walk students through specific systems of the body, and as it does so, it maintains a focus on homeostasis as well as those diseases and conditions that can disrupt it.

5.1. Layers of the Skin
5.2. Accessory Structures of the Skin
5.3. Functions of the Integumentary System
5.4. Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
Final Assessment

• #### Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System

6.1. The Functions of the Skeletal System
6.2. Bone Classification
6.3. Bone Structure
6.4. Bone Formation and Development
6.5. Fractures: Bone Repair
6.6. Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
6.7. Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
Final Assessment

• #### Axial Skeleton

7.1. Divisions of the Skeletal System
7.2. The Skull
7.3. The Vertebral Column
7.4. The Thoracic Cage
7.5. Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
Final Assessment

• #### The Appendicular Skeleton

8.1. The Pectoral Girdle
8.2. Bones of the Upper Limb
8.3. The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
8.4. Bones of the Lower Limb
8.5. Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
Final Assessment

• #### Joints

9.1. Classification of Joints
9.2. Fibrous Joints
9.3. Cartilaginous Joints
9.4. Synovial Joints
9.5. Types of Body Movements
9.6. Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
9.7. Development of Joints
Final Assessment

• #### Muscle Tissue

10.1. Overview of Muscle Tissues
10.2. Skeletal Muscle
10.3. Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
10.4. Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
10.5. Types of Muscle Fibers
10.6. Exercise and Muscle Performance
10.7. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
10.8. Smooth Muscle
10.9. Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
Final Assessment

• #### The Muscular System

11.1. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
11.2. Naming Skeletal Muscles
11.3. Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
11.4. Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
11.5. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
11.6. Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
Final Assessment

#### UNIT 3: REGULATION, INTEGRATION, AND CONTROL

Unit 3 helps students answer questions about nervous and endocrine system control and regulation. In a break with the traditional sequence of topics, the special senses are integrated into the lessons on the somatic nervous system. The lessons on the neurological examination offer students a unique approach to understanding nervous system function using five simple but powerful diagnostic tests.

12.1. Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
12.2. Nervous Tissue
12.3. The Function of Nervous Tissue
12.4. The Action Potential
12.5. Communication Between Neurons
Final Assessment

• #### Anatomy of the Nervous System

13.1. The Embryologic Perspective
13.2. The Central Nervous System
13.3. Circulation and the Central Nervous System
13.4. The Peripheral Nervous System
Final Assessment

• #### The Somatic Nervous System

14.1. Sensory Perception
14.2. Central Processing
14.3. Motor Responses
Final Assessment

• #### The Autonomic Nervous System

15.1. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
15.2. Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
15.3. Central Control
15.4. Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
Final Assessment

• #### The Neurological Exam

16.1. Overview of the Neurological Exam
16.2. The Mental Status Exam
16.3. The Cranial Nerve Exam
16.4. The Sensory and Motor Exams
16.5. The Coordination and Gait Exams
Final Assessment

• #### The Endocrine System

17.1. An Overview of the Endocrine System
17.2. Hormones
17.3. The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
17.4. The Thyroid Gland
17.5. The Parathyroid Glands
17.6. The Adrenal Glands
17.7. The Pineal Gland
17.8. Gonadal and Placental Hormones
17.9. The Endocrine Pancreas
17.10. Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
17.11. Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
Final Assessment

#### UNIT 4: FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT

In Unit 4, students examine the principal means of transport for materials needed to support the human body, regulate its internal environment, and provide protection.

18.1. An Overview of Blood
18.2. Production of the Formed Elements
18.3. Erythrocytes
18.4. Leukocytes and Platelets
18.5. Hemostasis
18.6. Blood Typing
Final Assessment

• #### The Cardiovascular System: Heart

19.1. Heart Anatomy
19.2. Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
19.3. Cardiac Cycle
19.4. Cardiac Physiology
19.5. Development of the Heart
Final Assessment

• #### The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation

20.1. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
20.2. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
20.3. Capillary Exchange
20.4. Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
20.5. Circulatory Pathways
20.6. Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
Final Assessment

• #### The Lymphatic and Immune System

21.1. Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
21.2. Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
21.3. The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
21.4. The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
21.5. The Immune Response against Pathogens
21.6. Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
21.7. Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
Final Assessment

#### UNIT 5: ENERGY, MAINTENANCE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXCHANGE

In Unit 5, students discover the interaction between body systems and the outside environment for the exchange of materials, the capture of energy, the release of waste, and the overall maintenance of the internal systems that regulate the exchange. The explanations and illustrations are particularly focused on how structure relates to function.

22.1. Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
22.2. The Lungs
22.3. The Process of Breathing
22.4. Gas Exchange
22.5. Transport of Gases
22.6. Modifications in Respiratory Functions
22.7. Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
Final Assessment

• #### The Digestive System

23.1. Overview of the Digestive System
23.2. Digestive System Processes and Regulation
23.3. The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
23.4. The Stomach
23.5. The Small and Large Intestines
23.6. Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
23.7. Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
Final Assessment

• #### Metabolism and Nutrition

24.1. Overview of Metabolic Reactions
24.2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
24.3. Lipid Metabolism
24.4. Protein Metabolism
24.5. Metabolic States of the Body
24.6. Energy and Heat Balance
24.7. Nutrition and Diet
Final Assessment

• #### The Urinary System

25.1. Physical Characteristics of Urine
25.2. Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
25.3. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
25.4. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
25.5. Physiology of Urine Formation
25.6. Tubular Reabsorption
25.7. Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
25.8. Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
25.9. Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
25.10. The Urinary System and Homeostasis
Final Assessment

• #### Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance

26.1. Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
26.2. Water Balance
26.3. Electrolyte Balance
26.4. Acid-Base Balance
26.5. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
Final Assessment

#### UNIT 6: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE

The closing Unit examines the male and female reproductive systems, describes the process of human development and the different stages of pregnancy, and ends with a review of the mechanisms of inheritance.

27.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
27.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
27.3. Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Final Assessment

• #### Development and Inheritance

28.1. Fertilization
28.2. Embryonic Development
28.3. Fetal Development
28.4. Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
28.5. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
28.6. Lactation
28.7. Patterns of Inheritance
Final Assessment

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