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  • An Introduction to the Human Body


    Unit 1 provides students with a basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, including its language, the levels of organization, and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. These lessons provide a foundation for the further study of the body. They also focus particularly on how the body’s regions, important chemicals, and cells maintain homeostasis.

  • An Introduction to the Human Body - Final Assessment

    This is the final assessment for An Introduction to the Human Body. (Available when you subscribe.)

    • This topic

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      • The Chemical Level of Organization

        2.1. Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
        2.2. Chemical Bonds
        2.3. Chemical Reactions
        2.4. Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
        2.5. Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
        Final Assessment

        • The Cellular Level of Organization

          3.1. The Cell Membrane
          3.2. The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
          3.3. The Nucleus and DNA Replication
          3.4. Protein Synthesis
          3.5. Cell Growth and Division
          3.6. Cellular Differentiation
          Final Assessment

          • The Tissue Level of Organization

            4.1. Types of Tissues
            4.2. Epithelial Tissue
            4.3. Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
            4.4. Muscle Tissue and Motion
            4.5. Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
            4.6. Tissue Injury and Aging
            Final Assessment

            • The Integumentary System


              In Unit 2, students explore the skin, the largest organ of the body, and examine the body’s skeletal and muscular systems, following a traditional sequence of topics. This unit is the first to walk students through specific systems of the body, and as it does so, it maintains a focus on homeostasis as well as those diseases and conditions that can disrupt it.

              5.1. Layers of the Skin
              5.2. Accessory Structures of the Skin
              5.3. Functions of the Integumentary System
              5.4. Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
              Final Assessment

              • Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System

                6.1. The Functions of the Skeletal System
                6.2. Bone Classification
                6.3. Bone Structure
                6.4. Bone Formation and Development
                6.5. Fractures: Bone Repair
                6.6. Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
                6.7. Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
                Final Assessment

                • Axial Skeleton

                  7.1. Divisions of the Skeletal System
                  7.2. The Skull
                  7.3. The Vertebral Column
                  7.4. The Thoracic Cage
                  7.5. Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
                  Final Assessment

                  • The Appendicular Skeleton

                    8.1. The Pectoral Girdle
                    8.2. Bones of the Upper Limb
                    8.3. The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
                    8.4. Bones of the Lower Limb
                    8.5. Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
                    Final Assessment

                    • Joints

                      9.1. Classification of Joints
                      9.2. Fibrous Joints
                      9.3. Cartilaginous Joints
                      9.4. Synovial Joints
                      9.5. Types of Body Movements
                      9.6. Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
                      9.7. Development of Joints
                      Final Assessment

                      • Muscle Tissue

                        10.1. Overview of Muscle Tissues
                        10.2. Skeletal Muscle
                        10.3. Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
                        10.4. Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
                        10.5. Types of Muscle Fibers
                        10.6. Exercise and Muscle Performance
                        10.7. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
                        10.8. Smooth Muscle
                        10.9. Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
                        Final Assessment

                        • The Muscular System

                          11.1. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
                          11.2. Naming Skeletal Muscles
                          11.3. Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
                          11.4. Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
                          11.5. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
                          11.6. Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
                          Final Assessment

                          • The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

                            UNIT 3: REGULATION, INTEGRATION, AND CONTROL

                            Unit 3 helps students answer questions about nervous and endocrine system control and regulation. In a break with the traditional sequence of topics, the special senses are integrated into the lessons on the somatic nervous system. The lessons on the neurological examination offer students a unique approach to understanding nervous system function using five simple but powerful diagnostic tests.

                            12.1. Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
                            12.2. Nervous Tissue
                            12.3. The Function of Nervous Tissue
                            12.4. The Action Potential
                            12.5. Communication Between Neurons
                            Final Assessment

                            • Anatomy of the Nervous System

                              13.1. The Embryologic Perspective
                              13.2. The Central Nervous System
                              13.3. Circulation and the Central Nervous System
                              13.4. The Peripheral Nervous System
                              Final Assessment

                              • The Somatic Nervous System

                                14.1. Sensory Perception
                                14.2. Central Processing
                                14.3. Motor Responses
                                Final Assessment

                                • The Autonomic Nervous System

                                  15.1. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
                                  15.2. Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
                                  15.3. Central Control
                                  15.4. Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
                                  Final Assessment

                                  • The Neurological Exam

                                    16.1. Overview of the Neurological Exam
                                    16.2. The Mental Status Exam
                                    16.3. The Cranial Nerve Exam
                                    16.4. The Sensory and Motor Exams
                                    16.5. The Coordination and Gait Exams
                                    Final Assessment

                                    • The Endocrine System

                                      17.1. An Overview of the Endocrine System
                                      17.2. Hormones
                                      17.3. The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
                                      17.4. The Thyroid Gland
                                      17.5. The Parathyroid Glands
                                      17.6. The Adrenal Glands
                                      17.7. The Pineal Gland
                                      17.8. Gonadal and Placental Hormones
                                      17.9. The Endocrine Pancreas
                                      17.10. Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
                                      17.11. Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
                                      Final Assessment

                                      • The Cardiovascular System: Blood

                                        UNIT 4: FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT

                                        In Unit 4, students examine the principal means of transport for materials needed to support the human body, regulate its internal environment, and provide protection.

                                        18.1. An Overview of Blood
                                        18.2. Production of the Formed Elements
                                        18.3. Erythrocytes
                                        18.4. Leukocytes and Platelets
                                        18.5. Hemostasis
                                        18.6. Blood Typing
                                        Final Assessment

                                        • The Cardiovascular System: Heart

                                          19.1. Heart Anatomy
                                          19.2. Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
                                          19.3. Cardiac Cycle
                                          19.4. Cardiac Physiology
                                          19.5. Development of the Heart
                                          Final Assessment

                                          • The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation

                                            20.1. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
                                            20.2. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
                                            20.3. Capillary Exchange
                                            20.4. Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
                                            20.5. Circulatory Pathways
                                            20.6. Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
                                            Final Assessment

                                            • The Lymphatic and Immune System

                                              21.1. Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
                                              21.2. Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
                                              21.3. The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
                                              21.4. The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
                                              21.5. The Immune Response against Pathogens
                                              21.6. Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
                                              21.7. Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
                                              Final Assessment

                                              • The Respiratory System

                                                UNIT 5: ENERGY, MAINTENANCE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXCHANGE

                                                In Unit 5, students discover the interaction between body systems and the outside environment for the exchange of materials, the capture of energy, the release of waste, and the overall maintenance of the internal systems that regulate the exchange. The explanations and illustrations are particularly focused on how structure relates to function.

                                                22.1. Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
                                                22.2. The Lungs
                                                22.3. The Process of Breathing
                                                22.4. Gas Exchange
                                                22.5. Transport of Gases
                                                22.6. Modifications in Respiratory Functions
                                                22.7. Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
                                                Final Assessment

                                                • The Digestive System

                                                  23.1. Overview of the Digestive System
                                                  23.2. Digestive System Processes and Regulation
                                                  23.3. The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
                                                  23.4. The Stomach
                                                  23.5. The Small and Large Intestines
                                                  23.6. Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
                                                  23.7. Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
                                                  Final Assessment

                                                  • Metabolism and Nutrition

                                                    24.1. Overview of Metabolic Reactions
                                                    24.2. Carbohydrate Metabolism
                                                    24.3. Lipid Metabolism
                                                    24.4. Protein Metabolism
                                                    24.5. Metabolic States of the Body
                                                    24.6. Energy and Heat Balance
                                                    24.7. Nutrition and Diet
                                                    Final Assessment

                                                    • The Urinary System

                                                      25.1. Physical Characteristics of Urine
                                                      25.2. Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
                                                      25.3. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
                                                      25.4. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
                                                      25.5. Physiology of Urine Formation
                                                      25.6. Tubular Reabsorption
                                                      25.7. Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
                                                      25.8. Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
                                                      25.9. Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
                                                      25.10. The Urinary System and Homeostasis
                                                      Final Assessment

                                                      • Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance

                                                        26.1. Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
                                                        26.2. Water Balance
                                                        26.3. Electrolyte Balance
                                                        26.4. Acid-Base Balance
                                                        26.5. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
                                                        Final Assessment

                                                        • The Reproductive System

                                                          UNIT 6: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE

                                                          The closing Unit examines the male and female reproductive systems, describes the process of human development and the different stages of pregnancy, and ends with a review of the mechanisms of inheritance.

                                                          27.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
                                                          27.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
                                                          27.3. Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
                                                          Final Assessment

                                                          • Development and Inheritance

                                                            28.1. Fertilization
                                                            28.2. Embryonic Development
                                                            28.3. Fetal Development
                                                            28.4. Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
                                                            28.5. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
                                                            28.6. Lactation
                                                            28.7. Patterns of Inheritance
                                                            Final Assessment

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