## Topic outline

• #### ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE

This comprehensive course contains 28 sections with 197 self-grading lessons, including final assessments. The first section is available to try for free.

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#### UNIT 1: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

Unit 1 provides students with a basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, including its language, the levels of organization, and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. These lessons provide a foundation for the further study of the body. They also focus particularly on how the body’s regions, important chemicals, and cells maintain homeostasis.

• #### An Introduction to the Human Body - Final Assessment

This is the final assessment for An Introduction to the Human Body. (Available when you subscribe.)

• This topic

Get your exclusive, private course for you and your students for just $199 per year. The full course includes all 197 lessons, including 28 Final Assessments with Instructor Answer Keys. Subscribe to unlock the rest of this course and get all of these extra features: • Try the FULL COURSE FREE for 14 days • Connect instantly to your own private course through your LMS • Re-arrange, hide/show, and use lessons in any order • Schedule lessons, control the number of attempts, add your own resources and more • Access the Blending.Space Dashboard with at-a-glance reporting charts, grades, course analytics, student progress, quiz attempts and feedback • Use with one or more classes • Access everything through your own LMS; there is no need to log in or add your students • Get free updates and support Once you subscribe, we'll create your private course. Once you receive your course you'll have 14 days to try the course free. You can cancel anytime during your free trial and you won't be charged. • #### The Chemical Level of Organization 2.1. Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter 2.2. Chemical Bonds 2.3. Chemical Reactions 2.4. Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning 2.5. Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning Final Assessment • #### The Cellular Level of Organization 3.1. The Cell Membrane 3.2. The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles 3.3. The Nucleus and DNA Replication 3.4. Protein Synthesis 3.5. Cell Growth and Division 3.6. Cellular Differentiation Final Assessment • #### The Tissue Level of Organization 4.1. Types of Tissues 4.2. Epithelial Tissue 4.3. Connective Tissue Supports and Protects 4.4. Muscle Tissue and Motion 4.5. Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response 4.6. Tissue Injury and Aging Final Assessment • #### The Integumentary System #### UNIT 2: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT In Unit 2, students explore the skin, the largest organ of the body, and examine the body’s skeletal and muscular systems, following a traditional sequence of topics. This unit is the first to walk students through specific systems of the body, and as it does so, it maintains a focus on homeostasis as well as those diseases and conditions that can disrupt it. 5.1. Layers of the Skin 5.2. Accessory Structures of the Skin 5.3. Functions of the Integumentary System 5.4. Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System Final Assessment • #### Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System 6.1. The Functions of the Skeletal System 6.2. Bone Classification 6.3. Bone Structure 6.4. Bone Formation and Development 6.5. Fractures: Bone Repair 6.6. Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue 6.7. Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems Final Assessment • #### Axial Skeleton 7.1. Divisions of the Skeletal System 7.2. The Skull 7.3. The Vertebral Column 7.4. The Thoracic Cage 7.5. Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton Final Assessment • #### The Appendicular Skeleton 8.1. The Pectoral Girdle 8.2. Bones of the Upper Limb 8.3. The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis 8.4. Bones of the Lower Limb 8.5. Development of the Appendicular Skeleton Final Assessment • #### Joints 9.1. Classification of Joints 9.2. Fibrous Joints 9.3. Cartilaginous Joints 9.4. Synovial Joints 9.5. Types of Body Movements 9.6. Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints 9.7. Development of Joints Final Assessment • #### Muscle Tissue 10.1. Overview of Muscle Tissues 10.2. Skeletal Muscle 10.3. Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation 10.4. Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension 10.5. Types of Muscle Fibers 10.6. Exercise and Muscle Performance 10.7. Cardiac Muscle Tissue 10.8. Smooth Muscle 10.9. Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue Final Assessment • #### The Muscular System 11.1. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems 11.2. Naming Skeletal Muscles 11.3. Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back 11.4. Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax 11.5. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs 11.6. Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Final Assessment • #### The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue #### UNIT 3: REGULATION, INTEGRATION, AND CONTROL Unit 3 helps students answer questions about nervous and endocrine system control and regulation. In a break with the traditional sequence of topics, the special senses are integrated into the lessons on the somatic nervous system. The lessons on the neurological examination offer students a unique approach to understanding nervous system function using five simple but powerful diagnostic tests. 12.1. Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System 12.2. Nervous Tissue 12.3. The Function of Nervous Tissue 12.4. The Action Potential 12.5. Communication Between Neurons Final Assessment • #### Anatomy of the Nervous System 13.1. The Embryologic Perspective 13.2. The Central Nervous System 13.3. Circulation and the Central Nervous System 13.4. The Peripheral Nervous System Final Assessment • #### The Somatic Nervous System 14.1. Sensory Perception 14.2. Central Processing 14.3. Motor Responses Final Assessment • #### The Autonomic Nervous System 15.1. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System 15.2. Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis 15.3. Central Control 15.4. Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System Final Assessment • #### The Neurological Exam 16.1. Overview of the Neurological Exam 16.2. The Mental Status Exam 16.3. The Cranial Nerve Exam 16.4. The Sensory and Motor Exams 16.5. The Coordination and Gait Exams Final Assessment • #### The Endocrine System 17.1. An Overview of the Endocrine System 17.2. Hormones 17.3. The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus 17.4. The Thyroid Gland 17.5. The Parathyroid Glands 17.6. The Adrenal Glands 17.7. The Pineal Gland 17.8. Gonadal and Placental Hormones 17.9. The Endocrine Pancreas 17.10. Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions 17.11. Development and Aging of the Endocrine System Final Assessment • #### The Cardiovascular System: Blood #### UNIT 4: FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT In Unit 4, students examine the principal means of transport for materials needed to support the human body, regulate its internal environment, and provide protection. 18.1. An Overview of Blood 18.2. Production of the Formed Elements 18.3. Erythrocytes 18.4. Leukocytes and Platelets 18.5. Hemostasis 18.6. Blood Typing Final Assessment • #### The Cardiovascular System: Heart 19.1. Heart Anatomy 19.2. Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity 19.3. Cardiac Cycle 19.4. Cardiac Physiology 19.5. Development of the Heart Final Assessment • #### The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation 20.1. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels 20.2. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance 20.3. Capillary Exchange 20.4. Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System 20.5. Circulatory Pathways 20.6. Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation Final Assessment • #### The Lymphatic and Immune System 21.1. Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems 21.2. Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response 21.3. The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types 21.4. The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies 21.5. The Immune Response against Pathogens 21.6. Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses 21.7. Transplantation and Cancer Immunology Final Assessment • #### The Respiratory System #### UNIT 5: ENERGY, MAINTENANCE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXCHANGE In Unit 5, students discover the interaction between body systems and the outside environment for the exchange of materials, the capture of energy, the release of waste, and the overall maintenance of the internal systems that regulate the exchange. The explanations and illustrations are particularly focused on how structure relates to function. 22.1. Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System 22.2. The Lungs 22.3. The Process of Breathing 22.4. Gas Exchange 22.5. Transport of Gases 22.6. Modifications in Respiratory Functions 22.7. Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System Final Assessment • #### The Digestive System 23.1. Overview of the Digestive System 23.2. Digestive System Processes and Regulation 23.3. The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus 23.4. The Stomach 23.5. The Small and Large Intestines 23.6. Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder 23.7. Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Final Assessment • #### Metabolism and Nutrition 24.1. Overview of Metabolic Reactions 24.2. Carbohydrate Metabolism 24.3. Lipid Metabolism 24.4. Protein Metabolism 24.5. Metabolic States of the Body 24.6. Energy and Heat Balance 24.7. Nutrition and Diet Final Assessment • #### The Urinary System 25.1. Physical Characteristics of Urine 25.2. Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport 25.3. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney 25.4. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney 25.5. Physiology of Urine Formation 25.6. Tubular Reabsorption 25.7. Regulation of Renal Blood Flow 25.8. Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function 25.9. Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition 25.10. The Urinary System and Homeostasis Final Assessment • #### Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance 26.1. Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments 26.2. Water Balance 26.3. Electrolyte Balance 26.4. Acid-Base Balance 26.5. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance Final Assessment • #### The Reproductive System #### UNIT 6: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE The closing Unit examines the male and female reproductive systems, describes the process of human development and the different stages of pregnancy, and ends with a review of the mechanisms of inheritance. 27.1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System 27.2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System 27.3. Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems Final Assessment • #### Development and Inheritance 28.1. Fertilization 28.2. Embryonic Development 28.3. Fetal Development 28.4. Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth 28.5. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages 28.6. Lactation 28.7. Patterns of Inheritance Final Assessment • #### Subscribe for as low as$199 per year

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