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  • AP® BIOLOGY COURSE


    This comprehensive course contains 38 sections with 205 self-grading lessons, including final assessments. The first section is available to try for free.

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  • The Study of Life AP®


  • The Study of Life AP® - Final Assessment


    This is the final assessment for The Study of Life AP®. (Available when you subscribe.)

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      • The Chemical Foundation of Life AP®



        2.1. Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
        2.2. Water
        2.3. Carbon

        Final Assessment


        • Biological Macromolecules AP®


          3.1. Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
          3.2. Carbohydrates
          3.3. Lipids
          3.4. Proteins
          3.5. Nucleic Acids
          Final Assessment


          • Cell Structure AP®


            4.1. Studying Cells
            4.2. Prokaryotic Cells
            4.3. Eukaryotic Cells
            4.4. The Endomembrane System and Proteins
            4.5. Cytoskeleton
            4.6. Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
            Final Assessment


            • Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes AP®


              5.1. Components and Structure
              5.2. Passive Transport
              5.3. Active Transport
              5.4. Bulk Transport
              5.5. Key Terms
              Final Assessment


              • Metabolism AP®


                6.1. Energy and Metabolism
                6.2. Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
                6.3. The Laws of Thermodynamics
                6.4. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
                6.5. Enzymes
                Final Assessment


                • Cellular Respiration AP®


                  7.1. Energy in Living Systems
                  7.2. Glycolysis
                  7.3. Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
                  7.4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
                  7.5. Metabolism without Oxygen
                  7.6. Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
                  7.7. Regulation of Cellular Respiration
                  Final Assessment

                  • Photosynthesis AP®


                    8.1. Overview of Photosynthesis
                    8.2. The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
                    8.3. Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
                    Final Assessment

                    • Cell Communication AP®


                      9.1. Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
                      9.2. Propagation of the Signal
                      9.3. Response to the Signal
                      9.4. Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
                      Final Assessment

                      • Cell Reproduction AP®


                        10.1. Cell Division
                        10.2. The Cell Cycle
                        10.3. Control of the Cell Cycle
                        10.4. Cancer and the Cell Cycle
                        10.5. Prokaryotic Cell Division
                        Final Assessment

                        • Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction AP®


                          11.1. The Process of Meiosis
                          11.2. Sexual Reproduction
                          Final Assessment


                          • Mendel's Experiments and Heredity AP®


                            12.1. Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
                            12.2. Characteristics and Traits
                            12.3. Laws of Inheritance
                            Final Assessment

                            • Modern Understandings of Inheritance AP®


                              13.1. Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
                              13.2. Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
                              Final Assessment

                              • DNA Structure and Function AP®


                                14.1. Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
                                14.2. DNA Structure and Sequencing
                                14.3. Basics of DNA Replication
                                14.4. DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
                                14.5. DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
                                14.6. DNA Repair
                                Final Assessment

                                • Genes and Proteins AP®


                                  15.1. The Genetic Code
                                  15.2. Prokaryotic Transcription
                                  15.3. Eukaryotic Transcription
                                  15.4. RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
                                  15.5. Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
                                  Final Assessment

                                  • Gene Regulation AP®


                                    16.1. Regulation of Gene Expression
                                    16.2. Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
                                    16.3. Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
                                    16.4. Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
                                    16.5. Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
                                    16.6. Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
                                    16.7. Cancer and Gene Regulation
                                    Final Assessment

                                    • Biotechnology and Genomics AP®


                                      17.1. Biotechnology
                                      17.2. Mapping Genomes
                                      17.3. Whole-Genome Sequencing
                                      17.4. Applying Genomics
                                      17.5. Genomics and Proteomics
                                      Final Assessment

                                      • Evolution and Origin of Species AP®


                                        18.1. Understanding Evolution
                                        18.2. Formation of New Species
                                        18.3. Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
                                        Final Assessment

                                        • The Evolution of Populations AP®



                                          19.1. Population Evolution
                                          19.2. Population Genetics
                                          19.3. Adaptive Evolution

                                          Final Assessment


                                          • Phylogenies and the History of Life AP®


                                            20.1. Organizing Life on Earth
                                            20.2. Determining Evolutionary Relationships
                                            20.3. Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
                                            Final Assessment

                                            • Viruses AP®


                                              21.1. Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
                                              21.2. Virus Infection and Hosts
                                              21.3. Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
                                              21.4. Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
                                              Final Assessment

                                              • Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea AP®


                                                22.1. Prokaryotic Diversity
                                                22.2. Structure of Prokaryotes
                                                22.3. Prokaryotic Metabolism
                                                22.4. Bacterial Diseases in Humans
                                                22.5. Beneficial Prokaryotes
                                                Final Assessment

                                                • Plant Form and Physiology AP®


                                                  23.1. The Plant Body
                                                  23.2. Stems
                                                  23.3. Roots
                                                  23.4. Leaves
                                                  23.5. Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
                                                  23.6. Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
                                                  Final Assessment

                                                  • The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function AP®


                                                    24.1. Animal Form and Function
                                                    24.2. Animal Primary Tissues
                                                    24.3. Homeostasis
                                                    Final Assessment

                                                    • Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System AP®


                                                      25.1. Digestive Systems
                                                      25.2. Nutrition and Energy Production
                                                      25.3. Digestive System Processes
                                                      25.4. Digestive System Regulation
                                                      Final Assessment

                                                      • The Nervous System AP®



                                                        26.1. Neurons and Glial Cells
                                                        26.2. How Neurons Communicate
                                                        26.3. The Central Nervous System
                                                        26.4. The Peripheral Nervous System
                                                        26.5. Nervous System Disorders

                                                        Final Assessment


                                                        • Sensory Systems AP®


                                                          27.1. Sensory Processes
                                                          27.2. Somatosensation
                                                          27.3. Taste and Smell
                                                          27.4. Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
                                                          27.5. Vision
                                                          Final Assessment


                                                          • The Endocrine System AP®


                                                            28.1. Types of Hormones
                                                            28.2. How Hormones Work
                                                            28.3. Regulation of Body Processes
                                                            28.4. Regulation of Hormone Production
                                                            28.5. Endocrine Glands
                                                            Final Assessment

                                                            • The Musculoskeletal System AP®


                                                              29.1. Types of Skeletal Systems
                                                              29.2. Bone
                                                              29.3. Joints and Skeletal Movement
                                                              29.4. Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
                                                              Final Assessment

                                                              • The Respiratory System AP®


                                                                30.1. Systems of Gas Exchange
                                                                30.2. Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
                                                                30.3. Breathing
                                                                30.4. Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
                                                                Final Assessment

                                                                • The Circulatory System AP®


                                                                  31.1. Overview of the Circulatory System
                                                                  31.2. Components of the Blood
                                                                  31.3. Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
                                                                  31.4. Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
                                                                  Final Assessment

                                                                  • Osmotic Regulation and Excretion AP®


                                                                    32.1. Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
                                                                    32.2. The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
                                                                    32.3. Excretion Systems
                                                                    32.4. Nitrogenous Wastes
                                                                    32.5. Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
                                                                    Final Assessment

                                                                    • The Immune System AP®


                                                                      33.1. Innate Immune Response
                                                                      33.2. Adaptive Immune Response
                                                                      33.3. Antibodies
                                                                      33.4. Disruptions in the Immune System
                                                                      Final Assessment

                                                                      • Animal Reproduction and Development AP®


                                                                        34.1. Reproduction Methods
                                                                        34.2. Fertilization
                                                                        34.3. Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
                                                                        34.4. Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
                                                                        34.5. Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
                                                                        34.6. Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
                                                                        34.7. Human Pregnancy and Birth
                                                                        Final Assessment

                                                                        • Ecology and the Biosphere AP®


                                                                          35.1. The Scope of Ecology
                                                                          35.2. Biogeography
                                                                          35.3. Terrestrial Biomes
                                                                          35.4. Aquatic Biomes
                                                                          35.5. Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
                                                                          Final Assessment

                                                                          • Population and Community Ecology AP®


                                                                            36.1. Population Demography
                                                                            36.2. Life Histories and Natural Selection
                                                                            36.3. Environmental Limits to Population Growth
                                                                            36.4. Population Dynamics and Regulation
                                                                            36.5. Human Population Growth
                                                                            36.6. Community Ecology
                                                                            36.7. Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
                                                                            Final Assessment

                                                                            • Ecosystems AP®


                                                                              37.1. Ecology for Ecosystems
                                                                              37.2. Energy Flow through Ecosystems
                                                                              37.3. Biogeochemical Cycles
                                                                              Final Assessment

                                                                              • Conservation Biology and Biodiversity AP®


                                                                                38.1. The Biodiversity Crisis
                                                                                38.2. The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
                                                                                38.3. Threats to Biodiversity
                                                                                38.4. Preserving Biodiversity
                                                                                Final Assessment

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