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  • Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour

  • Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy

  • Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy - Final Assessment

    This is the final assessment for Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy. (Available when you subscribe.)

    • This topic

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      • Orbits and Gravity

        3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion

        3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
        3.3 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
        3.4 Orbits in the Solar System
        3.5 Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft
        3.6 Gravity with More Than Two Bodies
        Final Assessment

        • Earth, Moon, and Sky

          4.1 Earth and Sky
          4.2 The Seasons
          4.3 Keeping Time
          4.4 The Calendar
          4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
          4.6 Ocean Tides and the Moon
          4.7 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
          Final Assessment

          • Radiation and Spectra

            5.1 The Behavior of Light
            5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
            5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
            5.4 The Structure of the Atom
            5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
            5.6 The Doppler Effect
            Final Assessment

            • Astronomical Instruments

              6.1 Telescopes
              6.2 Telescopes Today
              6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
              6.4 Radio Telescopes
              6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
              6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
              Final Assessment

              • Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System

                7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
                7.2 Composition and Structure of Planets
                7.3 Dating Planetary Surfaces
                7.4 Origin of the Solar System
                Final Assessment

                • Earth as a Planet

                  8.1 The Global Perspective
                  8.2 Earth’s Crust
                  8.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
                  8.4 Life, Chemical Evolution, and Climate Change
                  8.5 Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of Earth
                  Final Assessment

                  • Cratered Worlds

                    9.1 General Properties of the Moon
                    9.2 The Lunar Surface
                    9.3 Impact Craters
                    9.4 The Origin of the Moon
                    9.5 Mercury
                    Final Assessment

                    • Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars

                      10.1 The Nearest Planets: An Overview
                      10.2 The Geology of Venus
                      10.3 The Massive Atmosphere of Venus
                      10.4 The Geology of Mars
                      10.5 Water and Life on Mars
                      10.6 Divergent Planetary Evolution
                      Final Assessment

                      • The Giant Planets

                        11.1 Exploring the Outer Planets
                        11.2 The Giant Planets
                        11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
                        Final Assessment

                        • Rings, Moons, and Pluto

                          12.1 Ring and Moon Systems Introduced
                          12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
                          12.3 Titan and Triton
                          12.4 Pluto and Charon
                          12.5 Planetary Rings
                          Final Assessment

                          • Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System

                            13.1 Asteroids
                            13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
                            13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
                            13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
                            Final Assessment

                            • Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System

                              14.1 Meteors
                              14.2 Meteorites: Stones from Heaven
                              14.3 Formation of the Solar System
                              14.4 Comparison with Other Planetary Systems
                              14.5 Planetary Evolution
                              Final Assessment

                              • The Sun: A Garden-Variety Star

                                15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
                                15.2 The Solar Cycle
                                15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
                                15.4 Space Weather
                                Final Assessment

                                • The Sun: A Nuclear Powerhouse

                                  16.1 Sources of Sunshine: Thermal and Gravitational Energy
                                  16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
                                  16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
                                  16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
                                  Final Assessment

                                  • Analyzing Starlight

                                    17.1 The Brightness of Stars
                                    17.2 Colors of Stars
                                    17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
                                    17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion
                                    Final Assessment

                                    • The Stars: A Celestial Census

                                      18.1 A Stellar Census
                                      18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
                                      18.3 Diameters of Stars
                                      18.4 The H–R Diagram
                                      Final Assessment

                                      • Celestial Distances

                                        19.1 Fundamental Units of Distance
                                        19.2 Surveying the Stars
                                        19.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
                                        19.4 The H–R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
                                        Final Assessment

                                        • Between the Stars: Gas and Dust in Space

                                          20.1 The Interstellar Medium
                                          20.2 Interstellar Gas
                                          20.3 Cosmic Dust
                                          20.4 Cosmic Rays
                                          20.5 The Life Cycle of Cosmic Material
                                          20.6 Interstellar Matter around the Sun
                                          Final Assessment

                                          • The Birth of Stars and the Discovery of Planets outside the Solar System

                                            21.1 Star Formation
                                            21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
                                            21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
                                            21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
                                            21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
                                            21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation
                                            Final Assessment

                                            • Stars from Adolescence to Old Age

                                              22.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Red Giants
                                              22.2 Star Clusters
                                              22.3 Checking Out the Theory
                                              22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
                                              22.5 The Evolution of More Massive Stars
                                              Final Assessment

                                              • The Death of Stars

                                                23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
                                                23.2 Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish
                                                23.3 Supernova Observations
                                                23.4 Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars
                                                23.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
                                                23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
                                                Final Assessment

                                                • Black Holes and Curved Spacetime

                                                  24.1 Introducing General Relativity
                                                  24.2 Spacetime and Gravity
                                                  24.3 Tests of General Relativity
                                                  24.4 Time in General Relativity
                                                  24.5 Black Holes
                                                  24.6 Evidence for Black Holes
                                                  24.7 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
                                                  Final Assessment

                                                  • The Milky Way Galaxy

                                                    25.1 The Architecture of the Galaxy
                                                    25.2 Spiral Structure
                                                    25.3 The Mass of the Galaxy
                                                    25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
                                                    25.5 Stellar Populations in the Galaxy
                                                    25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
                                                    Final Assessment

                                                    • Galaxies

                                                      26.1 The Discovery of Galaxies
                                                      26.2 Types of Galaxies
                                                      26.3 Properties of Galaxies
                                                      26.4 The Extragalactic Distance Scale
                                                      26.5 The Expanding Universe
                                                      Final Assessment

                                                      • Active Galaxies, Quasars, and Supermassive Black Holes

                                                        27.1 Quasars
                                                        27.2 Supermassive Black Holes: What Quasars Really Are
                                                        27.3 Quasars as Probes of Evolution in the Universe
                                                        Final Assessment

                                                        • The Evolution and Distribution of Galaxies

                                                          28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies
                                                          28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei
                                                          28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
                                                          28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter
                                                          28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe
                                                          Final Assessment

                                                          • The Big Bang

                                                            29.1 The Age of the Universe
                                                            29.2 A Model of the Universe
                                                            29.3 The Beginning of the Universe
                                                            29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
                                                            29.5 What Is the Universe Really Made Of?
                                                            29.6 The Inflationary Universe
                                                            29.7 The Anthropic Principle
                                                            Final Assessment

                                                            • Life in the Universe

                                                              30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
                                                              30.2 Astrobiology
                                                              30.3 Searching for Life beyond Earth
                                                              30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
                                                              Final Assessment

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