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  • An Invisible World

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    This is the final assessment for An Invisible World. (Available when you subscribe.)

    • This topic

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      • How We See the Invisible World

        2.1. The Properties of Light
        2.2. Peering Into the Invisible World
        2.3. Instruments of Microscopy
        2.4. Staining Microscopic Specimens
        Final Assessment

        • The Cell

          3.1. Spontaneous Generation
          3.2. Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
          3.3. Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
          3.4. Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
          Final Assessment

          • Prokaryotic Diversity

            4.1. Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
            4.2. Proteobacteria
            4.3. Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
            4.4. Gram-Positive Bacteria
            4.5. Deeply Branching Bacteria
            4.6. Archaea
            Final Assessment

            • The Eukaryotes of Microbiology

              5.1. Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
              5.2. Parasitic Helminths
              5.3. Fungi
              5.4. Algae
              5.5. Lichens
              Final Assessment

              • Acellular Pathogens

                6.1. Viruses
                6.2. The Viral Life Cycle
                6.3. Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
                6.4. Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
                Final Assessment

                • Microbial Biochemistry

                  7.1. Organic Molecules
                  7.2. Carbohydrates
                  7.3. Lipids
                  7.4. Proteins
                  7.5. Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
                  Final Assessment

                  • Microbial Metabolism

                    8.1. Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
                    8.2. Catabolism of Carbohydrates
                    8.3. Cellular Respiration
                    8.4. Fermentation
                    8.5. Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
                    8.6. Photosynthesis
                    8.7. Biogeochemical Cycles
                    Final Assessment

                    • Microbial Growth

                      9.1. How Microbes Grow
                      9.2. Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
                      9.3. The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
                      9.4. Temperature and Microbial Growth
                      9.5. Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
                      9.6. Media Used for Bacterial Growth
                      Final Assessment

                      • Biochemistry of the Genome

                        10.1. Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
                        10.2. Structure and Function of DNA
                        10.3. Structure and Function of RNA
                        10.4. Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
                        Final Assessment

                        • Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics

                          11.1. The Functions of Genetic Material
                          11.2. DNA Replication
                          11.3. RNA Transcription
                          11.4. Protein Synthesis (Translation)
                          11.5. Mutations
                          11.6. How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
                          11.7. Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
                          Final Assessment

                          • Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics

                            12.1. Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
                            12.2. Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
                            12.3. Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
                            12.4. Gene Therapy
                            Final Assessment

                            • Control of Microbial Growth

                              13.1. Controlling Microbial Growth
                              13.2. Using Physical Methods to Control Microorganisms
                              13.3. Using Chemicals to Control Microorganisms
                              13.4. Testing the Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants
                              Final Assessment

                              • Antimicrobial Drugs

                                14.1. History of Chemotherapy and Antimicrobial Discovery
                                14.2. Fundamentals of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
                                14.3. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Drugs
                                14.4. Mechanisms of Other Antimicrobial Drugs
                                14.5. Drug Resistance
                                14.6. Testing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobials
                                14.7. Current Strategies for Antimicrobial Discovery
                                Final Assessment

                                • Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

                                  15.1. Characteristics of Infectious Disease
                                  15.2. How Pathogens Cause Disease
                                  15.3. Virulence Factors of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens
                                  15.4. Virulence Factors of Eukaryotic Pathogens
                                  Final Assessment

                                  • Disease and Epidemiology

                                    16.1. The Language of Epidemiologists
                                    16.2. Tracking Infectious Diseases
                                    16.3. Modes of Disease Transmission
                                    16.4. Global Public Health
                                    Final Assessment

                                    • Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses

                                      17.1. Physical Defenses
                                      17.2. Chemical Defenses
                                      17.3. Cellular Defenses
                                      17.4. Pathogen Recognition and Phagocytosis
                                      17.5. Inflammation and Fever
                                      Final Assessment

                                      • Adaptive Specific Host Defenses

                                        18.1. Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity
                                        18.2. Major Histocompatibility Complexes and Antigen-Presenting Cells
                                        18.3. T Lymphocytes and Cellular Immunity
                                        18.4. B Lymphocytes and Humoral Immunity
                                        18.5. Vaccines
                                        Final Assessment

                                        • Diseases of the Immune System

                                          19.1. Hypersensitivities
                                          19.2. Autoimmune Disorders
                                          19.3. Organ Transplantation and Rejection
                                          19.4. Immunodeficiency
                                          19.5. Cancer Immunobiology and Immunotherapy
                                          Final Assessment

                                          • Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response

                                            20.1. Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody Production
                                            20.2. Detecting Antigen-Antibody Complexes
                                            20.3. Agglutination Assays
                                            20.4. EIAs and ELISAs
                                            20.5. Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
                                            Final Assessment

                                            • Skin and Eye Infections

                                              21.1. Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Skin and Eyes
                                              21.2. Bacterial Infections of the Skin and Eyes
                                              21.3. Viral Infections of the Skin and Eyes
                                              21.4. Mycoses of the Skin
                                              21.5. Protozoan and Helminthic Infections of the Skin and Eyes
                                              Final Assessment

                                              • Respiratory System Infections

                                                22.1. Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory Tract
                                                22.2. Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract
                                                22.3. Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract
                                                22.4. Respiratory Mycoses
                                                Final Assessment

                                                • Urogenital System Infections

                                                  23.1. Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital Tract
                                                  23.2. Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System
                                                  23.3. Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System
                                                  23.4. Viral Infections of the Reproductive System
                                                  23.5. Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System
                                                  23.6. Protozoan Infections of the Urogenital System
                                                  Final Assessment

                                                  • Digestive System Infections

                                                    24.1. Anatomy and Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
                                                    24.2. Microbial Diseases of the Mouth and Oral Cavity
                                                    24.3. Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
                                                    24.4. Viral Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
                                                    24.5. Protozoan Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
                                                    24.6. Helminthic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
                                                    Final Assessment

                                                    • Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections

                                                      25.1. Anatomy of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
                                                      25.2. Bacterial Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
                                                      25.3. Viral Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
                                                      25.4. Parasitic Infections of the Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems
                                                      Final Assessment

                                                      • Nervous System Infections

                                                        26.1. Anatomy of the Nervous System
                                                        26.2. Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
                                                        26.3. Acellular Diseases of the Nervous System
                                                        26.4. Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
                                                        Final Assessment

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